FLORENCE – Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore

THE ORGAN

In 1990, twenty-seven years ago, the Positive and the four-manual console were constructed, both mounted on a mobile platform and designed for better support of the Choir. Since then, a series of maintenance works has been carried out to ensure the correct and safe operation of the complex instrument.
The “Report on the Condition of the Organ” written by the Director of Music, Mr. Michele Manganelli and signed by the two organists of the Cathedral Mr. Daniele Dori and Mr. David Jackson, highlighted existing problems and the unexploited potential that this instrument could provide following some improvements.

The most worrying thing was the transmission: a system based on first-generation electronic cards for which spare parts have become almost impossible to find. From a safety point of view, engine startup and protection components, also dated (1990) and no longer reliable, required maintenance as well. Sporadic defects started appearing in the Choir organ in the octagon that still retains its original membrane valves (in use for over 50 years).

The Recitativo (Swell) organ placed above the sacristy came weak in comparison to the Great Organ, so it was decided to introduce some enhancements to it and make it “more relevant” to the proper performance of romantic-symphonic literature.

The right transept, where daily liturgical celebrations are held, lacked a suitable instrument for accompaniment. The fact that the left transept has a two-manual organ with an independent console (Cappella della Neve) suggested a proposal to exploit the “symmetry” of the Duomo architecture by placing a new organ in the right transept chapel opposite that of “della Neve”, but using a different structural approach: placing it on the left wall of the above Chapel, so that the altar and the fresco behind it are left unobstructed. This Echo organ in French Romantic style, which includes a swell division and has 13 ranks in total, is the newest addition to already impressive organ arsenal installed in the Cathedral.

Finally, a new five-manual console allows independent use of all the six separate organs and allows the organists to use all the possible combination actions that previously were impossible to implement due to a lack of space.
With the introduction of this new console, the other ones are put to better use, according to the following scheme:
– the new five-manual console takes the place of the four-manual console, allowing the use of the entire organ complex with new advanced functions;
– the four-manual console takes the place of the three-manual console in the octagon so that the entire organ complex can also be played from there (previously not possible);
– the three-manual console takes the place of the two-manual console at the organ of Cappella della Croce, providing greater possibilities to the performer.

The upgrade also allows the use of two consoles at once and introduces the latest generation tools such as touch screen displays and proximity sensors for the organist.

All of these improvements make the organ of the Florence Cathedral the largest and most technologically advanced Mascioni instrument to date.

DISPOSITION

Four consoles positioned at different points in the Cathedral.

5 manuals with 61 keys (C-c””) – pedalboard with 32 keys (C-g’)

Manual  I – Choir
1. Principale 8′
2. Flauto stoppo 8′
3. Ottava 4′
4. Flauto a camino 4′
5. Ottavina 2′
6. Quintina 1.1/3′
7. Ripieno 3 file 2′
8. Ripieno 4 file 1/3′

 

Manual  I – Positive (movable)
9. Principale I 8′
10. Principale II 8′
11. Bordone  8′
12. Ottava  4′
13. Flauto  4′
14. Decimaquinta 2′
15. Ripieno 6 f. 1.1/3′
16. Usignoli
17. Tromba 8′
18. Tremolo

 

Manual  II – Gr. Organ
19. Principale 16′
20. Principale 8′
21. Corno Camoscio 8′
22. Flauto 8′
23. Ottava 4′
24. Flauto 4′
25. Duodecima 2.2/3′
26. Decimaquinta 2′
27. Decimanona 1.1/3′
28. Ripieno 4 file  1.1/3′
29. Ripieno 6 file 2/3′
30. Cornetto 5 file 8′
31. Voce Umana 8′
32. Tromba 16′
33. Tromba 8′
34. Tromba 4′
35. Tuba Mirabilis 8′
36. Tuba Mirabilis 4′
37. Campane  A2-F4
Manual  III – Recitativo Espr. (Swell)
38. Bordone 16′
39. Diapason 8′
40. Bordone 8′
41. Gamba 8′
42. Principale 4′
43. Flauto armonico 4′
44. Flauto stoppo 4′
45. Flauto in XII 2.2/3′
46. Flautino 2′
47. Decimino 1.3/5′
48. Flauto in XIX 1.1/3′
49. Piccolo 1′
50. Ripieno 5 file 2′
51. Voce Celeste 2 file 8′
52. Controfagotto  16′
53. Tromba armonica 8′
54. Oboe 8′
55. Musetta 4′
56. Voci Corali 8′
57. Tremolo
Couplers
58. I  8  II  
59. III  8  II  
60. IV  8  II  
61. V  8  II  
62. III  8  I  
63. IV  8  I  
64. V  8  I  
65. IV  8  III  
66. V  8  III  
67. V  8  IV  
Combinations
68. I 8 PED.  
69. II 8 PED.  
70. III 8 PED.  
71. IV 8 PED.  
72. V 8 PED.  
73. I 4 PED.  
74. II 4 PED.  
75. III 4 PED.  
76. IV 4 PED.  
77. V 4 PED.  
78. I 16 I  
79. I 4 I  
80. III 16 I  
81. III 4 I  
82. IV 16 I  
83. IV 4 I  
84. I 16 II  
85. I 4 II  
86. II 4 II  
87. III 16 II  
88. III 4 II  
89. IV 16 II  
90. IV 4 II  
91. III 16 III  
92. III 4 III  
93. IV 16 III  
94. IV 4 III  
95. IV 16 IV  
96. IV 4 IV  
97. V 4 IV
  Manual  IV – Chapel Organ  
     
98. Principale 16′
99. Principale 8′
100. Flauto 8′
101. Ottava 4′
102. Flauto 4′
103. Sesquialtera 2 file 2.2/3′
104. Decimaquinta 2′
105. Ripieno 6 file 1.1/3′
106. Cornetto soprani 3 file
107. Tromba 8′
108. Tromba 4′

 

 Manual  IV – Chapel Swell Organ
109. Principale 8′
110. Bordone 8′
111. Ottava 4′
112. Flauto 4′
113. Nazardo 2.2/3′
114. Silvestre 2′
115. Ripieno 5 file 2′
116. Decimino 1.3/5′
117. Fagotto 8′
118. Clarinetto 8′
119. Tremolo

 

Manual  IV – Echo Organ
120. Bordone 16′
121. Principale 8′
122. Flauto armonico 8′
123. Ottava 4′
124. Decimaquinta 2′

 

  Manual  V – Echo Swell  
     
125. Corno di Notte 8′
126. Viola da gamba 8′
127. Voce Celeste 8′
128. Flauto ottaviante 4′
129. Tromba armonica 8′
130. Tremolo

 

  Pedal  
     
131. Basso acustico 32′
132. Contrabasso 16′
133. Principale 16′
134. Quinta 10.2/3′
135. Basso 8′
136. Principale  8′
137. Ottava 4′
138. Superottava  2′
139. Ripieno 6 file 2.2/3′
140. Contro Bombarda 32′
141. Bombarda 16′
142. Tromba 16′
143. Trombone 8′
144. Tromba 8′
145. Clarone 4′
146. Tuba Mirabilis  8′
147. Tuba Mirabilis  4′
148. Campane A1-F3
Pedal (Echo)  
     
149. Subbasso 16′
150. Basso 8′
Pedal (Choir and Positive)  
     
151. Bordone (Choir) 16′
152. Bordone (Choir) 8′
153. Basso (Positive) 16′
154. Bordone (Positive) 8′
155. Flauto (Positive) 4′
Pedal (Swell)
156. Bordone 16′
157. Bordone 8′
158. Flauto 4′
159. Controfagotto 16′
160. Fagotto 8′
161. Musetta 4′
Pedal (Chapel)
162. Basso 16′
163. Subbasso 16′
164. Basso dolce 8′
165. Bordone 8′
166. Ottava 4′
167. Flauto 4′
168. Tromba  16′
169. Tromba  8′
170. Tromba  4′
STRUCTURAL SCHEME
NEW ECHO ORGAN
NEW FIVE MANUAL CONSOLE

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